Oyster mushrooms efficiently grow at temperature of 20–30°C and 55%–70% humidity on different lignocellulosic substrates such as cotton wastes, rice and wheat straw, wood sawdust and chips, corn cobs, sugarcane bagasse, maize and sorghum stover, different leaves, and other residues.
Humidity and temperature affect on fruiting body of oyster mushroom. Particularly, the factors affect the fruiting bodies’ shape. Optimal cultivation conditions vary with strains. Optimal temperature and humidity for fruiting body formation of this mushroom is known as 13-16°C and > 80%. High and low temperature indicates > 16°C and < 12°C, respectively and high and low humidity indicates > 80% and < 60%.
- With high temperature and high humidity: Cap/stipe ratio smaller (small cap/long stipe); Cap color becomes lighter (grey-brownish grey) ; Depression in the center.
- With high temperature and low humidity: Cap margin gets thinner and brittle; Cap turns into umbrella shape; Cap color become very light (light grey-white); Stipe becomes very thick .
- With low temperature and low humidity : Cap color becomes dark (dark brown); Stipe becomes thick or middle of stipe is swollen or barrel-shaped ; Fruiting bodies grows very slowly and produces low yields
- With low temperature and high humidity : Relatively strong color and strong fruiting bodies formed ; Fruiting bodies grow slowly and the number of fruiting bodies reduced.
Several trials were designed to evaluate humidity and temperature factors affecting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom species. For example, Jang et al, 2003 reported that cap size and individual weight of Pleurotus ostreatus were 5.6 cm and 14.9g, respectively, at the cultivation house controlled in the 13~16oC and 80% or more relative humidity. On the other hand, the cap size and stipe thickness decreased with 16oC and 80% or more relative humidity. Stipe thickness decreased severely with decrease of relative humidity, and individual weight was the lowest at 16oC or more and 60% or less relative humidity. Deformed fruit-bodies, of which color was pale gray and crumbly, appeared at 16oC or more and60% or less relative humidity.
Kab-Yeul Jang, Chang-Sung Jhune, Jeong-Sik Park, Soo-Muk Cho, Hang-Yeon Weon, Jong-Chun Cheong, Sun-Gyu Choi, Jae-Mo Sung (2003). Characterization of Fruit body Morphology on Various Environmental Conditions in Pleurotus ostreatus. Mycobiology, 31(3): 145-150.