Cultivation of Enokitake (Flammulina velutipes)

Cultivation of enokitake Flammulina Velutipes

Substrate preparation

Sawdust and rice bran (wheat bran) are the most popular used as substrates for the mushroom cultivation. Much of the lignin, cellulose, and mono-saccharides are provided by the sawdust. Sawdust media have oxygen and water which is necessary for mycelial growth. Rice bran (wheat bran) is used as a supplement which provides many of the essential nutrients.

Sawdust is wetted thoroughly with water for 16-18 hrs. Generally, equal quantity of saw dust is poured in equal quantity of water in 100 liters capacity tubs. After wetting 5 per cent wheat bran is added in the saw dust and mixed thoroughly

A variety of containers such as polypropylene bags, plastic bottle, vinyl bag, filter bag and jars can be used to cultivate this mushroom.

1kg soaked substrate was filled in polypropylene bag. The bags are plugged with non-absorbent cotton by inserting a ring in the mouth of the bag. The bags are sterilized in the autoclaves for 90 minutes at 1210C, 15 psi.

Cultivation of (Flammulina velutipes ) on petri plate


After the bags have been sterilized and cooled down to 20°C, they are inoculated with wheat grain based spawn.

Incubation (Spawn run)

The bags are placed in incubation rooms where mycelia can grow favourably. The optimum temperature for the mycelial growth is between 22 and 25°C, so the temperature of incubation room is kept between 20-23°C under the normal commercial cultivation conditions. Mycelia spread over the whole bag after 20-25 days

Fruiting induction

When mycelial spread to 90% of the bag space, the plug is pulled off, the neck of the bag is unfolded and the surface of the media is made smooth for fruiting. Bags are then placed in the dark at a temperature of 10 -14 °C and the humidity is maintained at 80 -85%. A moisture level in the bags is important to fruiting. Good fruit bodies are encouraged to form by adjusting the humidity in the room to maintain the correct moisture content of the substrate. Primordia are formed in 10-14 days after reducing the temperature.

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