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Yellow Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) Cultivation

Yellow oyster mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) is a wood-decay fungus. Native to eastern Russia, northern China and Japan. The fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus grow in clusters of bright yellow to golden brown caps with a velvety, dry surface texture. The flesh is thin and white, with a mild taste and no strong smell. Stems are cylindrical, white color, curved or bent. The gills are white, closely spaced and run down the stem. P. citrinopileatus mycelium can grow well on PDA or MYA media. Cereal grains such as rye, sorghum, millet,…

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Mushroom culture preservation: advantages and disadvantages

Proper culture preservation is an integral part of the successful mushroom cultivation. The main objective of culture preservation is to store cultures in viable and stable form for long periods without losing genotypic, phenotypic and physiological traits. Isolates in culture tubes stored at room temperature had a maximum life of 6–12 months, whereas those kept under refrigeration survived for five years or more. The time gap between sub/culturing varied with species and in general, was in the range of 3–12 months. The most common and simple method of short-term storage…

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Popular Oyster Mushroom Varieties for Commercial Cultivation

Oyster mushrooms are the easiest variety of mushroom to grow at home or in a small /big scale. The mushrooms grows fast, relatively resistant to competitor organisms and can grow on a different kind of substrate materials. There are several popular oyster mushroom varieties for commercial cultivation below: Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus): This oyster mushroom is one of the most commonly available varieties. They grow best in colder temperatures (12-18oC). 2. Phoenix Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius): The Summer Oyster mushroom, Italian Oyster mushroom, or the Indian Oyster mushroom, this…

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Solid media preparation for obtaining fungal culture (mushrooms)

In this article we will discuss about solid media preparation (PDA) for obtaining fungal culture in the pure form Fungi are heterotrophic in nature which means that they are not capable of photosynthesis and thus require organic matter for growth and energy formation. Fungi can live as saprophytes on dead plants and animals or their wastes or parasites assimilating tissues of living plants and animals. A typical fungal life cycle features formation of threadlike vegetative hyphae which form a mycelium, a three-dimensional structure of hyphae capable of effective assimilation of…

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How do supplements affect on the growth of mushrooms?

Mushrooms are heterotrophic organisms which require external nutrients to grow. The formula of substrate deeply influences the yield and quality of harvested mushrooms. Mushrooms require oxygen and a specific pH in order to develop a normal metabolism and to grow properly. C and N are the two main macronutrients required by fungi for structural and energy requirements; P, K and Mg are considered macronutrients for mushrooms, in addition, trace elements such as Fe, Se, Zn, Mn, Cu and Mo appear to be needed for diverse functions.  Mushroom supplementation is understood…

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Fungal Spores: Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

Fungal spores are microscopic biological particles that allow fungi to be reproduced, serving a similar purpose to that of seeds in the plant world. In the kingdom fungi, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are two major phyla. Ascomycetes fungi produce a sac-shaped cell, bearing eight haploid spores called ascospores during sexual reproduction. This structure is known as ascus (plural: asci). Basidiomycetes produce a club-shaped cell which bears four protruded haploid spores called basidiospores during sexual reproduction. It is known as basidium (plural: basidia). With asci cells, spores are produced internally, and in…

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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus), a potential medicinal mushroom for future?

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is a parasitic Polyporus from the Hymenochetaceae family. This fungal species has only been described in the northern hemisphere. Chaga can be particularly found in Canada, in the north of the United States of America, Kazakhstan, Siberia, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, China, and in Europe (mostly in the northern and eastern parts of the continent). This fungus infects hardwood trees mainly from the genus Betula (birches), and to a lesser extent, those from the genera Quercus (oaks), Populus (poplars), Alnus (alders), Fagus (ashes), and Acer (maples).…

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Chaga Mushroom Inonotus obliquus

Chaga mushroom Inonotus obliquus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes. This fungus infects hardwood trees, mostly those from the genus Betula (birches), and to a lesser extent, those from the genera Quercus (oaks), Populus (poplars), Alnus (alders), Fagus (ashes), and Acer (maples). Currently, this fungal species has only been described in the northern hemisphere. Chaga can be found in Canada, in the north of the United States of America, in Kazakhstan, in Siberia, in Ukraine, in Japan, in South Korea, in China, as well as in Europe (mostly in…

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Shiitake spawn preparation

Shiitake spawn preparation: Shiitake, Lentinula edodes, is a saprophyte and white rot fungus which feeds on deal oak tree species in nature. In its life cycle, each basidium under the gill of a fruit-body produces 4 basidio-spores which sporulate under a certain condition to become a primary mycelium and then a secondary mycelium by fusion between compatible mycelia. Shiitake spawn is a medium, colonized by the secondary mycelia. The second mycelia will eventually form fruit-bodies. Factor regarding mycelial growth of shiitake: Temperature: 21-27oC, RH%: 95-100; Duration (days): 35-70; CO2 (ppm):…

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Cultivation of Enokitake (Flammulina velutipes)

Cultivation of enokitake Flammulina Velutipes Substrate preparation Sawdust and rice bran (wheat bran) are the most popular used as substrates for the mushroom cultivation. Much of the lignin, cellulose, and mono-saccharides are provided by the sawdust. Sawdust media have oxygen and water which is necessary for mycelial growth. Rice bran (wheat bran) is used as a supplement which provides many of the essential nutrients. Sawdust is wetted thoroughly with water for 16-18 hrs. Generally, equal quantity of saw dust is poured in equal quantity of water in 100 liters capacity…

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